Starting from July, on the shelves of stores there are lovers of all stripes-arbuza. Both adults and children love to enjoy this sweet and juicy fruit. But still it is better when the watermelon grew up on its own site. In fact, it is quite possible to grow it without the conditions of the southern climate.
Given the birthplace of watermelons, its advantages and requirements for growing. It is quite resistant to the conditions of high air temperatures and low humidity, as well as the poverty of soil. Of the possible representatives of this culture, it is most unpretentious. But at the same time, melon culture requires a lot of sunlight, dry air, light and wet soil, especially in the period when flowering is carried out and ovaries are formed.
The most serious obstacle to a person who wants to grow a watermelon is a change in air humidity.
If dry land can be easily moistened with watering, then in the case of a wet climate, you need to make considerable efforts. In such a situation, a special structure will be required, according to the type of greenhouse. You cannot miss the moment that the crop needs to be protected from birds. So what else needs to be done in order to rejoice at the early and tasty fruits grown on a personal land plot further.
Features of the land mixture
If you decide to plant a watermelon, then you need to take care of the ground in advance, it is best to do it in the fall. In cases where peaty viscous soil or with a high clay content prevails, a special effect is necessary. For this, the earth is dug up (it is better to do it on two bayonets of shovels), all weeds are extracted from it. You can give the soil to lightness and water permeability by adding sand to it, two buckets are required per square meter of land. But the sand is also special requirements, it should be of river origin, since the predominance of iron in construction sand can extremely oxidize the selected area.
As for the level of acidity, the watermelon will be better if it is neutral. In order to somehow find out this indicator, a special indicator or ph. Indicators, of course, give a more accurate result. They can be purchased at any specialized store where chemical reagents are sold. So, take the soil that you plan to use for planting, dilute it with water and observe to change the shade of the indicator, well, or readings in the device.
Another way to determine the state of the Earth is to observe plants. Now, if in some place, wheatfold and more chamomile or cornflower grow in some place, then there is neutral acidity there. But plantainers, moss and horsetail prefer more acidic areas. The growth of poppy and mustard indicates an alkaline reaction of a particular soil.
It’s good that the acidity can be adjusted. This is done using lime solution (water + lime). This mixture is filled with the earth, which neutralizes alkaline soil. Additionally, you can add sawdust of coniferous trees. It is quite effective to sow bean plants.
It is equally important, which previously grew in the selected place. If these were cucumbers, melons or pumpkin, then there is a danger of fusariosis or peronosporosis. Potatoes, vegetable pepper, eggplant also pose a danger to the future fruit. The break between crops should be at least five years. The watermelon will pour perfectly if it grows in the place where there were previously corn, wheat, barley, sunflower or representatives of the Beaver family.
In the process of preparing the Earth, namely at the time of digging, it is necessary to fertilize it with standard macro elements, such as potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Each of them has certain doses: superphosphat-30gr/1m2, potassium-20g/1m2, but nitrogen is added in small doses in general. In order to avoid the concentration of a large number of nitrates, it is better to apply nitrogen fertilizers with organic elements. If you want to positively affect the productivity of the watermelon, then add magnesium trace elements in the autumn period. It is more convenient and useful to use mineral fertilizers in liquid form. Such mixtures already have everything necessary for the full growth of melon culture (manganese, iron, selenium, etc. D.).
If you pay special attention to the content of humic acids and the beneficial smallest organisms that affect the state of microflora, then you can ensure good digestibility of all top dressing, thereby increase your crop.
The principles of landing
The biggest problem of melons living in the northern climate is frosts that are late in the spring. But still, the effects of this circumstance can be avoided, for this there are two methods.
First, this is a seedlings of a seedling. He, of course, has his pros and cons of. The advantage is that time is saved, at the time of significant warming and lack of frosts, you plant stems, with already formed leaves. The disadvantage is that watermelons do not quite like movements, as they have a fragile root system. But there is a way out, for this you can use peat pots that gradually dissolve in the soil. This method does not require the extraction of the seedling from the pot and, in addition, it receives additional meals. Do not worry if some time after landing watermelons do not begin to grow. All of the fact that they were not only received stress, they are also sensitive to fungal diseases.
The second method. Planting in the spring of the year does not pose in danger if a small greenhouse from the film or a full -fledged greenhouse is built for this.
The greenhouse is used as a temporary shelter for plants. As soon as weaving becomes large, and fit within its limits, it is removed. If we consider the greenhouse, then to save space in this case, watermelon stems are tied in an upright position, they themselves cling to their antennae to special columns. In order for insects to have access to the greenhouse, you need to keep the door open during the day. Когда арбузы становятся размером с апельсин, их нужно дополнительно подвязывать к опорам, предварительно уложив в сетки. If in your region the summer is cloudy, then with the help of a greenhouse structure for watermelons you can create ideal conditions, namely the corresponding microclimate and timely watering. But in those areas where the summer period is accompanied by arid heat, and the main problem is frost, it is quite possible to do with a greenhouse, temporary shelter for watermelons.
You can solve two problems in one fell swoop. There is such a method as the arrangement of the Korean ridge. It allows you to plant seeds right in the ground and accelerate the moment of ripening, not at all worried about the frosts. This will need a wide plastic film. Small holes (about five centimeters in diameter) are dug every half a meter are dug up. Rows should be located at a distance of two meters from each other. The earth needs to be cleaned well of the litter, fertilize and pour abundantly. Polyethylene shafts are installed three meters high. For even greater convenience in caring for seedlings, you can drip an irrigation system (hose or drip irrigation devices) in these structures, which will ensure the constant supply of watermelon moisture.
The film is laid in such a way that holes are located along the crests of the shafts, in which the seeds are already laid, they must be pre -soaked. All bacons are covered with glass jars lowered by the neck down. This event will create a greenhouse effect that is suitable for germination of seeds. Alternative cans, these are plastic bottles. What is the action: due to the fact that the film is not permeable, it allows the ground to warm up well during the day and not cool down for a long time at night, while not allowing moisture to evaporate. In order for the plant to be not closely under one can in the future, after the sprouts are cut through, remove the weaker of them. Most rationally sowing at the end of April. All because at the time when a sufficient number of leaves forms and you will need to remove the jar, the frosts will end. Thus, you will protect them from frostbite.
No matter how you clean the weeds before sowing, some kind of roots will still remain, which in the summer will begin to grow intensely along with watermelons. In order for these “pests” do not spoil the film, breaking through it and violating the earth’s microclimate, you need to cover it with a layer of sawdust or straw. When the sun does not arrive, all the weeds will dry out, and the soil, in turn, will additionally warm up under a layer of mulching coating. If you decide to feed your watermelons, then the liquid must be poured directly into the holes from which weaving grows. For convenience, it is better to take care of watering in the spring, installing the system under the film. You can smooth the soil, in which case the procedure for caring for it will be facilitated, but there will be less to warm up.
Growing watermelon in conditions of short summer, it is very important to monitor the formation of leaves. Когда появляется шестой лепесточек нужно прищепить плеть, данная процедура простимулирует процесс цветения. In spring, top dressing is carried out with all the necessary fertilizers (phosphate, nitrogen). But when the fetus is the size of a large apple, nitrogen -containing substances should be removed, and those that are with potassium, on the contrary, are increased, this applies to trace elements. Pinching must be performed several leaves higher in order to influence the number of fruits.
In order to at least somehow protect the fruits from fungal pests, it is enough correct watering, which must only be performed under the root, the leaves cannot be wetted. If possible, it is necessary to minimize the contact of weaving with the soil, for example, pour mulch. In this case, the disputes that are on the ground will not be able to contact with the leaves of the plant.
Bachch needs to be watered abundantly, after a certain period, starting with the teething of the first stems and during all growth. At the moment when the fruits begin to pour, the volume of water supplied must be reduced to avoid the likelihood of cracking a watermelon. The main pests that can leave a plantation without a crop, these are crows. You need to especially protect young fruits from them. What can be done for this? The scarecrow helps, as well as shelter of the crop itself, or its pouring it. The fruits can also be hidden in boxes, if the tails are dry, this means that your berries have ripened and you can harvest.
And now about how to do it in the apartment
A little information on the points on how to carry out melons without a land plot:
You need to take a container, according to the type of bucket in which the watermelon will grow;
For the substrate, the humus of meadow, dung and sand is taken, all this in equal relationships;
Perform watering with useful organic and inorganic substances, which contain trace elements;
Four seeds are placed in the resulting earthen mixture, after which you observe and wait for the first shoots;
When the result is, choose the strongest in the type of processes;
In the same container, you need to install a support, up to a meter high;
As it forms, on the sixth sheet, the lash must be trimmed;
If the sun shines for less than twelve hours, you need to take care of additional lighting;
pollination is carried out artificially;
Make so that there are no more than two watermelons on the whips;
When they reach the size of the egg, they need to be tied to the support, having previously placed in special nets;
fertilizer and watering is carried out in the same way as when growing in the garden.
Due to the possibility of ensuring additional lighting in addition to sunlight, striped treats can be grown at any time of the year. Domestic watermelons are small in size and thin peel.
The materials necessary for breeding melons in the garden and in the apartment:
loose mixture of grains formed by destruction of rocks;
phosphate, potassium and nitrogen fertilizers;
trace elements in the complex;
dark -colored humus acids;
drip and perforated watering systems;
elements for soil protection (mulch);
polyethylene film and nets for small fruits;
containers, to protect watermelons from raven;
Material for isolation;
metal arcs for greenhouses;